In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Most Merciful


 What are the characteristics Abdullah bin Abbas used to have?

   Dear brother, this is lesson number 49 of the series of the companions' biography, may Allah be pleased with them all. Today, we will talk about a beacon among the companions, and he is none other than Abdullah bin Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him.



 This notable companion owned glory from all its aspects;  he owned the glory of being one of the Prophet's companions, he owned the glory of kinship, for he was the cousin of the Prophet PBUH, he owned the glory of knowledge, for he was the most knowledgeable in this Ummah and the rich source of knowledge and he owned the glory of piety, for he used to fast during the day, offer night prayers during the night and ask for Allah's Forgiveness before daybreak. He used to weep abundantly out of fearing Allah until tears carved cracks on his cheeks, given weeping out of seeking Allah's Mercy is the highest sort of weeping. The ruthless heart is very far from weeping, and whoever does not weep or feign weeping (hoping to weep for real), surely has a flaw in his faith.  Allah the Almighty describes the believer as follows:


﴾And when His Verses (this Qur'an) are reauthord unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Lord (Alone);﴿


[Al-Anfal, 2]



 The believer's skin would shiver out of fearing Allah. Allah the Almighty says:


﴾Allah has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur'an), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they reauthor it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah.﴿


[Az-Zumar, 23]



 As for the one who does not cry, does not invoke Allah, does not resort to Allah and does not roll his forehead in dust while seeking Allah's Content, should know that his faith is flawed. Man nourishes his brain by knowledge, his heart by remembering Allah and his body by food and water.



 Abdullah bin Abbas is the religious most knowledgeable man in this Ummah and the best among companions, as he used to know the Quran very well and comprehend it, and he was able to dig deep in its oceans and realize its purposes and secrets.


 The Du'as (supplications) the Prophet PBUH made for Ibn Abbas:

  It is enough of an honor for Abdullah that the Prophet PBUH said the following about him:

((Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Once the Prophet (PBUH) entered a lavatory and I placed water for his ablution. He asked, "Who placed it?" He was informed accordingly and so he said, "O Allah! Make him (Ibn 'Abbas) a learned scholar in religion (Islam).))


[Agreed upon, Al-Bukhari and Muslim in Sahih, on the authority of Ibn Abbas]



 In another Hadith:


((Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Once the Prophet (PBUH) embraced me and said, "O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an).))


[Agreed upon, Al-Bukhari and Muslim in Sahih, on the authority of Ibn Abbas]



 In another narration:


((Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Once the Prophet (PBUH) embraced me (pressed me to his chest) and said, "O Allah, teach him wisdom (i.e. the understanding of the knowledge of Qur'an).))


[Agreed upon, Al-Bukhari and Muslim in Sahih, on the authority of Ibn Abbas]


((Ibn Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, put his hand on my shoulder and he said, "O Allah, give him understanding in religion and teach him the interpretation of the Quran."))


[Ahmad in his Musnad, on the authority of Ibn Abbas]



 The meaning of the Arabic word "Ta'weel" is to comprehend Allah's Words and understand the subtle meanings of them and the far-off purposes and depth of their purposes, and this is but a great grace of Allah's Graces. In the following Ayah, Allah the Almighty describes our Master Yusuf PBUH by saying:


﴾Allah has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur'an), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they reauthor it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah.﴿


[Yusuf, 6]



 Thus, understanding the deep and subtle meaning of Allah's Words and comprehending their purposes in their full dimensions are graces from Allah. Allah the Almighty says:


﴾And We made Sulaiman (Solomon) to understand (the case), and to each of them We gave Hukman (right judgement of the affairs and Prophethood) and knowledge. And We subjected the mountains and the birds to glorify Our Praises along with Dawud (David), And it was We Who were the doers (of all these things).﴿


[Al-Anbiya', 79]



 The scholars expressed that in the term "Yaqeen Ishraqi" (the certainty that is manifested in extraordinary manifestations) and this was also described by the Prophet PBUH who told us the reason behind having it. He PBUH said:



((Whoever puts into practice what he has learnt, Allah the Almighty will bestow upon him the knowledge he has not acquired.))



 However, Al-Yaqeen Al-Ishraqi should fall within the Quran and Sunnah.



 How old was Ibn Abbas when the Prophet PBUH died? How many As7adeth did he memorize? How was his accompanying to the Prophet PBUH before his death? When the Prophet PBUH died, this very religious and knowledgeable companion, who was a beacon among this Ummah's scholars, was only 13 years old, yet he memorized close to 1660 Hadith reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim on his authority, and Ibn Abbas heard them all with his ear from the Prophet PBUH.



 When Ibn Abbas was born, his mother brought him to the Prophet PBUH who did Tahneek to him (At-Tahneek means softening a date and then rubbing the palate of the new-born with it just after the birth or soon after that.), so the Prophet's saliva was the first thing Ibn Abbas swallowed, and along with it he swallowed Taqwah and Wisdom. Allah the Almighty says:


﴾He grants Hikmah to whom He pleases, and he, to whom Hikmah is granted, is indeed granted abundant good. But none remember (will receive admonition) except men of understanding.﴿


[Al-Baqarah, 269]



 Ibn Abbas became a dedicated disciple of the Prophet PBUH following him at every beck and turn. As a child, he often used to fetch water for the Prophet PBUH to perform ablution, and he offered Salah behind him. As he grew older, he accompanied the Prophet PBUH on journeys until he became like his shadow; walking with him when he walked and wandering with him when he wandered. This young companion (i.e. Ibn Abbas) held in his chest a clean heart and a strong memory, which recorded better than any recording device in our era.


 The secret of the following Du'a:

   Abdullah related the following incident about himself:




 ((Once the Prophet, peace be upon him, was on the point of performing wudu. I hurried to get water ready for him. He was pleased with what I was doing. As he was about to begin Salat, he indicated that I should stand at his side. However, I stood behind him. When the Salat was finished, he turned to me and said: 'What prevented you from being at my side, O Abdullah?' 'You are too illustrious and too great in my eyes for me to stand side by side with you,' I replied.))







 How polite he was? At present day, a student may walk one meter or half a meter before his 50-year-old teacher. It is said that one of the presidents of France said to his prime minister who was walking next to him, "May you take one step back, so that people would know that there is only one leader in this country?" The Prophet PBUH made this Du'a for Ibn Abbas:


((O Allah, teach him wisdom (i.e. the understanding of the knowledge of Qur'an).))


[Agreed upon, Al-Bukhari and Muslim in Sahih, on the authority of Ibn Abbas]



 How honored Ibn Abbas was to be allocated with such Du'a by the Prophet PBUH, given Muhammad PBUH is the Prophet of this Ummah and the closest human being to Allah the Almighty.  He PBUH also made this Du'a:


((O Allah, give him understanding in religion and teach him the interpretation of the Quran.))


[Ahmad in his Musnad]



 This is but a great honor. Allah the Almighty responded to the Du'a of the Prophet PBUH, and He bestowed upon this Hashimi boy wisdom with which he gained superiority over the legends of wisdom.


 One of Ibn Abbas's stances by which the matter of this Ummah was amended:

  Ibn Abbas said, "One day I came to Ali before Dhuhr and said to him, "O Leader of the Believers, may the salat sooth you. Perhaps I should visit the rebels and speak to them." He replied, "I fear for you." I assured him, "No, I am a man known for good character who will not hurt anyone." So he allowed me. I dressed up with my best Yemeni clothes and sandals, then I went to visit them at mid-day.



 When I arrived, I found people whose devotion in prayer the like of which I had never seen. Their foreheads scarred from continuous and prolonged prostrations, their palms were calloused like the knees of camels. Their clothes were washed and their faces lined from staying awake all night. I greeted them, and they replied, "Welcome Ibn Abbass, what are you wearing?" I said, "What is wrong with that? I have seen the Prophet PBUH putting on the best garments, and Allah the Almighty says, "Say (O Muhammad PBUH): "Who has forbidden the adoration with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for his slaves, and At-Taiyibat [all kinds of Halal (lawful) things] of food?" [Al-A'raf, 32]."



 They said, "What has brought you here?" I answered, "Tell me what you have against Rasulullah's son in law?" They said, "We have three things against him", to which I said, "What are they?" They answered, "First, that Ali made men judges in Allah's affairs even though Allah, Most Great and Glorious, has said, "The decision is only for Allah". [Al-An'am, 57]." I asked again, "That is one, and what else?" They said, "Secondly, Ali fought and killed his enemies, yet he neither took  captives nor spoils of war. If it was because the enemies were believers, why was it permissible for us to fight and kill them and not make them captives?" Then I asked, "What is the third?" They said, "He erased the title Amir Al-Mu'minin (Leader of the Believers) from himself. If he is not Amir Al-Mu'minin, then surely he must be Amir Al-Kafirin (Leader of the Disbelievers)."



 I said, "If I reauthor for you from Allah's Book something and from Sunnah something which refute your statement, and if I do so, will you retract your position?" They replied affirmatively. I said, "As for your statement concerning men's judgment in Allah's affair, Allah says, "O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram for Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage), and whosoever of you kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka'bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you"[Al-Ma'idah', 95].



 Allah the Almighty also says about the woman and her husband, "If you fear a breach between them twain (the man and his wife), appoint (two) arbitrators, one from his family and the other from her's" [An-Nisa', 35]. I said, "I implore you, by Allah! Is men's judgment to reconcile what is between themselves and prevent spilling of blood more excellent that man's judgment over a rabbit and a woman's family rights and obligations or not? Which of them is more important?" They replied the arbitration was. I asked them if they would retract their objection to Ali's agreement to arbitration and they agreed.



 I said, "As for your statement concerning Ali's fighting without taking captives or spoils of war, it means that you would have taken your mother, Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, as a captive. By Allah, if you say that she is not your mother, you have left Islam. And, by Allah, if you say that you would have made her a captive and made permissible what is permissible in the case of sh3er (i.e. sex), you have left Islam. You are caught between two grave errors from Allah, the Most Great Glorious has said, "The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers') msh3er (as regards respect and marriage)."[Al-Ahzab, 6].



 I said, "Will you retract from this point?" They replied, "Yes!" Then I said, "As for your statement concerning his erasing the title Amir Al-Mu'minin, I will give you the similar example concerning someone with whom you are pleased. On the day of Hudaibiyah, the Prophet PBUH made a treaty with the Mushrikin represented by Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb and Suhail Ibn Amr. He told Ali to put it in writing for them so Ali wrote, "These are the terms of peace agreed upon by Muhammad, Rasulullah. However, the Mushrikin objected saying, "By Allah, we do not know you to be a Rasulullah, for if we did know you to be so, we would not have fought you." The Prophet PBUH then said, "O Allah, you know that I am Rasulullah. Erase it, O Ali and write, 'These are the terms of peace agreed upon by Muhammad Ibn Abdullah.' By Allah, surely Rasulullah is better than Ali, and he erased a title from himself." As a result, 20.000 of them retracted their position, while the rest of them (they were 4000) revolted and were killed.



 Due to the wisdom of Ibn Abbas and to his sound proofs, the meeting with Al-Khawarij was fruitful, and 20.000 of them retracted their position and became among those who were with Imam Ali, may Allah be pleased with him.



 Putting forth sound proofs is a very powerful act. You may hear lots of endless stories about people who foretell the unseen or who read the future in a coffee cup, but all of these false claims are refuted in one Ayah in which Allah the Almighty says:


﴾Say (O Muhammad PBUH): "I don't tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor (that) I know the unseen; nor I tell you that I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me by inspiration." Say: "Are the blind and the one who sees equal? will you not then take thought?"﴿


[Al-An'am, 50]



 The Prophet PBUH, who was very exalted, did not know the unseen though he is the Prophet PBUH, so how come another human being who is certainly in a lower rank than the Prophet PBUH pretends to know the unseen? How wonderful it is to embrace Tawheed! How wonderful it is to be able to put forth sound evidence! When the believer is capable of supporting his stances with sound proofs, he seems to be  as strong as a fortified castle that derives its power from the rigorous proofs Allah has granted, from the Light (Allah's Book) Allah has casted into his heart and from the Sunnah which runs in his blood. Hence, such a man will be protected against any superstition, sorcery, falsehood or exaggeration, given exaggeration is the gravest danger that lurks against religion.



 A barren brother I know once met with a so-called pretentious man who did not abide by the Quran and Sunnah, so the latter said to him, "Eat this apple, and you will have children by Allah's Will." Well, that man was himself barren, so how come he could give someone else what he himself lacked? Allah the Almighty says:


﴾ To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He bestows female (offspring) upon whom He wills, and bestows male (offspring) upon whom He wills* Or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He wills. Verily, He is the All-Knower and is Able to do all things. ﴿


[Ash-Shura, 49-50]



 Dear brother, I hope that each one of you make a review of his perspectives, religious information, untrue beliefs, corrupted ideologies and the like, because everything you believe to be true should have a proof from the Quran or the Prophetic Sunnah, otherwise you will be the victim of your own erratic thoughts.



 Let me tell you something: Every corrupted belief shall be manifested in your behavior, and if supposedly it does not, then it is worthless and meaningless, but as a matter of fact, whatever you believe in will reflect on your behavior, so beware of what you believe in.



 If someone mistakenly assumes that the Prophet PBUH will give his intercession to those who commit major sins among his Ummah, this wrong Aqeedah will lead to grave results, for this man will go easy on committing minor sins and might move to committing major sins. Let alone, whenever he does so, he will say, "I heard that the Prophet PBUH said, "My intercession is assured for the sinners of my nation." [At-Tirmizi, on the authority of Anas]." Thus, he utters this Hadith, and his self, which is inclined to devil, deceives him, and as a result he commits major sins. Such comprehension is very poor. Allah the Almighty says:


﴾ Except those who repent and believe (in Islamic Monotheism), and do righteous deeds, for those, Allah will change their sins into good deeds, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. ﴿


[Al-Furqan, 70]



 Some people misunderstand this Ayah, assuming that the graver the sin is, the greater the reward with which it will be replaced will be. This is a very dangerous comprehension, and it leads man to commit major sins as he assumes that they will be replaced with great rewards. This is not the meaning of the Ayah at all. The Ayah means that when the believer gets acquainted with Allah, Allah casts the light of faith into his heart and He is manifested in it, only then his bad traits will be replaced with good ones. Consequently, if he used to be stingy, he will become generous, if he used to be cowardic, he will become brave, if he used to be unjust, he will become just and if his heart used to be ruthless, it will become tender. This is the meaning of the Ayah, so comprehending it wrongly as I have mentioned earlier is dangerous, and it leads man to his doom. I hope that none of these deviated thoughts would ever sneak into our minds, lest we suffer grave consequences.


 His respect to knowledge and knowledgeable people:

 After the Prophet PBUH died, this companion said about himself, "I continued to collect and learn the Prophet's teaching from his companions, and once I went to one of them during the time of the afternoon siesta and spread my cloak in front of his door. The wind blew dust on me (as I sat waiting for him). If I had wished I could have sought his permission to enter, and he would certainly have given me permission, but I preferred to wait on him so that he could be completely refreshed. Coming out of his house and seeing me in that condition he said, 'O cousin of the Prophet! What's the matter with you? If you had sent for me I would have come to you.' To which I said, 'I am the one who should come to you, for knowledge is sought, it does not just come'.



 Once, one of Bani Abbas's Khulafa' (Caliphs) offered Hajj and said, "One of the Khulafa' of Bani Abbas offered Hajj and said, "I want a scholar from whose knowledge I can benefit", so his followers went to Imam Malik (the Imam of Dar Al-Hijrah), and they said to him, "The Khalifah (Caliph) is inviting you to visit him." To which he answered, "Say to him, 'O Haroon, the wealth of knowledge does not go to the doors of sh3er'." When Haroon was informed of his answer he said, "This is true, I should go to him", so when people told Imam Malik that Haroon is coming to you Imam Malik said, "I will not allow him to step over the necks of people." Haroon again said, "This is true." When Haroon arrived to his religious session, he sat on a seat, so Imam Malik said, "Whoever is humble before Allah, Allah will exalt him, and whoever is arrogant, Allah will abase him", then Haroon said, "Take this seat away", and he sat with people."



 Ibn Abbas used to humiliate himself in the cause of seeking knowledge though he is the cousin of the Messenger of Allah PBUH. The Prophet PBUH said:



((Acquire knowledge and teach people. Learn along with it dignity and tranquility and humility for those who teach you and humility for those whom you teach. Do not be tyrannical scholars and thus base your knowledge upon your ignorance.))



 The polite student will take all the knowledge his teacher has willingly, but if this student is harsh in his questions, rude in his comments, annoying in his criticism and impolite in his behavior, he will scare away his teacher. A poet said:



The teacher and the physician

  Will not advise you unless they are honored



 The companions were astonished about the exalted manners of the Prophet PBUH till they asked, "Who cultivated you, O Allah's Messenger?" He PBUH answered:



((Allah raised me and perfected my manners.))



 The Prophet was never seen – out of his high discipline- stretching his legs. He was lenient and was as shy as the virgin in her bedroom.  He never confronted any of his companions with something he hated, and when he wanted to address someone he did not do that mentioning him in particular, but rather he would address the public in order not to embarrass him:



((How is it that some people raise their eyes towards the sky?…))



((What is the matter with people who stipulate conditions that are not in the Book of Allah?...))



((Why do some people refrain from doing something which I do?...))



((What has happened to these people that they say so and so?…))



((What is wrong with the employee whom we send (to collect Zakat from the public). that he returns to say, 'This is for you and that is for me?...))



 Zayd bin Thabit was one of the writers of the Divine Revelation, and he was the head of scholars in Madinah regarding judging, Fiqh and Fara'id, so how did he treat Ibn Abbas? Ammar bin Yasir narrated that Zayd Ibn Thabit intended to go on a trip, whereupon the young 'Abdullah Ibn Abbas stood humbly at his side and taking hold of the reins of his mount adopted the attitude of a humble servant in the presence of his master. Zayd said to him, "Do not, O cousin of the Prophet." "Thus we were commanded to treat our Ulama' and elders," was 'Abdullah's reply. Zayd said to him in turn, "Let me see your hand." Abdullah stretched out his hand. Zayd, taking it, kissed it and said, "Thus we were commanded to treat the members of the household of the Prophet PBUH."



 Dear brother, the society of believers is very exalted, for all the believers adopt these exalted manners, and they respect one another. To be honest with you, I am hurt when I see young men joking with each other without respect to their feelings. You should respect the feelings of sh3er, and you should know the value of one another and complete each other, so that you may lift your society to the high rank acquired by the society of the companions of the Prophet PBUH.



 Can you guess who the reference of knowledge was and whose help was sought when our Master Umar bin Al-Khattab had to solve an issue he had? Why did the companions criticize him, and was Umar right? Ibn Abbas reached the highest rank of eminence though he was young. Whenever our Master Umar was faced with a problem, he would summon his companions and Ibn Abbas too to discuss it. Furthermore, whenever Ibn Abbas attended, Umar would respect him and seat him close to him, then he would offer the problem he had by saying, "We are facing this difficulty, and you are the one who should be consulted in such problems."



The companions felt insulted that young Ibn Abbas was summoned with them and was asked and consulted by Umar, so once they complained to Umar about that and Umar said, "He is the young man of maturity, and he owns an inquiring tongue and a comprehending heart."


((Ibn Abbas said: "Umar used to ask me questions in front of the Companions of the Prophet. So Abdur-Rahman bin Awf said to him, 'Why do you ask him, while we have children like him?'" He said, "Umar said to him, 'It is because of what you know (about him).' So he asked him about this Ayah: 'When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.' I said, "It is only regarding the (end of the) life p of the Messenger of Allah, informing him of it." Then he reauthord the Surat until its end. So Umar said to him, "By Allah! I know not about it, but what you know."))


[Al-Bukhari in Sahih, on the authority of Ibn Abbas]



 Ibn Abbas narrated:


((Umar used to let me join the company of elders who were present at Badr, some of whom felt uneasy and asked why I should be allowed with them when I was young. But 'Umar said to them, 'You know that he is of high standing.' One day 'Umar invited them all and invited me as well. I felt that he wanted to show them who I was so he asked them, 'What do you make of God's saying, ' When the victory granted by God and the conquest come?' Some of them replied, 'He ordered us to praise him and seek his forgiveness when he helps us to triumph and bestows his favors on us.' The sh3er remained silent. Then 'Umar asked me, 'Do you agree with this view, Ibn Abbas?' I answered in the negative. 'Umar asked me again. 'What then do you say?' I replied, 'It was a sign from God to Muhammad indicating the approach of the end of his life meaning, when the victory from God and the conquest come, you; end is near, so extol the praises of your Lord and seek his forgiveness.' 'Umar commented, 'I have known no more than what you have said.))


[Al-Bukhari in Sahih, on the authority of Ibn Abbas]


﴾ When comes the Help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah)* And you see that the people enter Allah's religion (Islam) in crowds* So glorify the Praises of your Lord, and ask for His Forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and forgives. ﴿


[An-Nasr, 1-3]



 This Surat indicates that the Prophet PBUH conveyed the Message of Allah, he fulfilled the trust, and people started to embrace Islam in crowds. Since everything was complete, the hour of the Prophet's death approached.


 His sermon addressed to the sinner:

A preaching of this noble companion goes as follows:



 "You, who are committing a sin, do not consider yourself safe from its consequences. Worse than the sin is if you do any of the following things after committing the sin: Your lack of shame from the angels who are to your right and left at the time of committing the sin is worse than the sin if you commit it. Your laughter when you do not know what Allah is going to do to you is worse than the sin itself. Your rejoicing over the sin you committed is worse than the sin itself. Your grief over not being able to commit a sin when you miss an opportunity to commit it is worse than the sin itself had you committed it. Your fear of the wind which unveils the curtain of your door while you are committing the sin, while your heart does not tremble at the fact that Allah is watching you, then this is worse than the sin if you commit it. O you who are committing a sin, ask Allah to forgive you, because worse than the sin itself is its consequences after committing it."

   How many years did he live? Who offered funeral prayer on him?

 This eminent companion lived 71 years, during which he filled the world with his wisdom, comprehension, knowledge and piety. When his hour of death approached, Muhammad Ibn Al-Hanafiyah prayed funeral prayer on him with the few companions who were still alive and with so many followers, and while they were putting him in his grave, they heard someone reciting these Ayat:


﴾ (It will be said to the pious): "O (you) the one in (complete) rest and satisfaction!* "Come back to your Lord, Well-pleased (yourself) and well-pleasing unto Him!* "Enter you, then, among My honoured slaves* "And enter you My Paradise!" ﴿


[Al-Fajr, 27-30]


The conclusion:

   Dear brother, this noble companion is an example for children, for he was only 13 years old when the Prophet PBUH died. Yet, he memorized about 1660 Sahih Hadith, and he was the reference of knowledge for our Master Umar, the giant of Islam. Actually, man's true value is derived from what he knows and what he does, and any other standard does not count. As it is said, "Seek honor and exaltedness from Allah", which means: Use Allah's Standards in order to deserve to be exalted in His Sight.







Praise be to Allah, the Lord of Creations