In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Allah praised Prophet Muhammad in many Ayaht:O our Master, O Messenger of Allah, all we can say on the birth anniversary of you is that Allah praised your reasoning in His Quran, He says:
((Your companion (Muhammad PBUH) has neither gone astray nor has erred.))
Allah also praised your tongue, He says:
((Nor does he speak of (his own) desire.))
Allah praised your Shari'ah which you were inspired, He says:
((It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.))
He praised Jibrael (the one you sit with to receive Allah's message), Allah says:
((He has been taught (this Qur'an) by one mighty in power [Jibrael (Gabriel)].))
He praised your heart, Allah says:
((The (Prophet's) heart lied not (in seeing) what he (Muhammad PBUH) saw.))
Allah praised your sight, He says:
((The sight (of Prophet Muhammad PBUH) turned not aside (right or left), nor it transgressed beyond (the) limit (ordained for it).))
And He praised you as a whole, Allah says:
((And verily, you (O Muhammad PBUH) are on an exalted standard of character.))
O Allah, grant peace and blessings to Sayyidina Muhammad, upon his Family his Companions and his descendants, the trustees of his message and leaders of his army, and be pleased with us and them, O Lord of the Worlds.
Slaves of Allah, I advice you (including myself) to fear Allah, and I urge you to obey Him. Let me start with what is good.
Distinguishing between the right and the wrong is installed in Fitrah:Dear believer brother in the Arab and Islamic world, the topic of our Khutbah today is about Fitrah which is installed in mankind. Allah installed in the head (reason- intellect, etc.) and in the heart (feelings and sentiments) of man what helps him differentiate between vice and virtue, so that he can recognize the ugliness of bad deeds and keep away from them and feel the sweetness of the good ones and be relieved while doing them. This explains why people praise whoever performs a good deed and dispraise whoever commits a bad one.
The Divine texts refers to the fact that there is a moral sense in man's conscious, and these texts recommended the believing Muslim to consult his heart to judge the behavior to which his ownself inclines. Allah says:
((And by Nafs (Adam or a person or a soul, etc.), and Him Who perfected him in proportion;* Then He showed him what is wrong for him and what is right for him; *Indeed he succeeds who purifies his ownself (i.e. obeys and performs all that Allah ordered, by following the true Faith of Islamic Monotheism and by doing righteous good deeds). *And indeed he fails who corrupts his ownself (i.e. disobeys what Allah has ordered by rejecting the true Faith of Islamic Monotheism or by following polytheism, etc. or by doing every kind of evil wicked deeds).))The ownself of mankind was shown by Fitrah what is right and what is wrong for it since it was created and perfected. This is the Fitrah sense through which one can distinguish between vice from virtue.
Man is granted an insight with which he can call himself to a moral account for his deeds and intentions despite all the attempts he makes to defend himself and point the finger of blame at sh3er, Allah says:
((Nay! Man will be a witness against himself [as his body parts (skin, hands, legs, etc.) will speak about his deeds]. *Though he may put forth his excuses (to cover his evil deeds).))
Muslim narrated in His Sahih, by Nawwas Ibn Sam'an, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
(((Birr) virtue is a kind disposition and vice is what rankles in your heart and that you disapprove that people should come to know of it.))
This Hadith indicates that there is a moral sense in man's ownself towards sinning; that is why the sinner disapproves that people should come to know of his sin since he knows that they feel what he feels (towards committing sins). Researches of Ethics called this rooted moral sense in the ownself "The conscious".
((Imam Ahmad and Addarami narrated in a Hasan authentication Hadith that On the authority of Wabisah bin Ma'bad, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: I came to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and he said, "You have come to ask about righteousness." I said, "Yes." He, peace be upon him, said, "Consult your heart. Righteousness is that about which the soul feels at ease and the heart feels tranquil. And wrongdoing is that which wavers in the soul and causes uneasiness in the breast, even though people have repeatedly given their legal opinion [in its favour]."))
Dear brother, this Hadith clearly confirms the existence of the moral sense. If this sense is sound, pure, healthy and flawless, it can sense the good conducts and the good behavior, and it can sense the indecent conducts and the misbehavior. Besides, it can differentiate between the two.
Tranquility marks righteousness and confusion marks sinning:Dear believer brother in the Arab and Islamic world, the righteous man performs Al-Birr (righteousness), which is interpreted in the Prophetic Hadith as good conducts, with a comfortable heart and tranquil soul, but when he is about to sin, he gets anxious, hesitant and disturbed. Hence, comfort marks Birr and hesitation, disturbance and the fear that people may know of the sin mark Ithm (sinning). However, in some cases, both reasoning and conscious get confused concerning some issues, and they are be unable to recognize the truth, so guidance and enlightenment are required. In other cases, desires, lusts and traditions might prevail or might be negatively influenced by misleaders and Satans (whether those among human beings or Jinn). Therefore, the only way out for Muslim is to save himself from Mushtabihat (doubtful matters between Halal and Haram). He can do that by either leaving them, lest he commits Haram in case he suspects a matter to be Halal or Haram, or doing them if Mushtabihat are between Halal and Wajib (obligation). Concerning the latter Mushtabihat, the Muslim is recommended to do that matter, lest he commits the sin of leaving a Wajib. The proof that supports this method which should be followed by the Muslim is in the following Hadith:
Bukhari and Muslim reported in different narrations by An-Nu'man Ibn Basheer that he said: I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying:
((What is Halal (lawful) is clear and what is Haram (unlawful) is clear, but between them are certain Mushtabihat which many people do not know. So he who guards against Mushtabihat keeps his religion and his honour blameless. But he who falls into Mushtabihat falls into that which is unlawful, just as a shepherd who grazes his cattle in the vicinity of a pasture declared prohibited (by the king); he is likely to stray into the pasture. Mind you, every king has a protected pasture and Allah's involved limits are that which He has declared unlawful. Verily, there is a piece of flesh in the body, if it is healthy, the whole body is healthy, and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt. Verily, it is the heart.))
Controversial matters in fiqh:Dear believer brother in the Arab and Islamic world, this noble Hadith is one of the inclusive fundamentals and it includes major matters which have to do with the principles of behavior. Furthermore, this Hadith divides Shari'ah rulings into three major parts: The first part is the pure, clear and undoubtedly Halah about which people will not argue, and from which the ownselves won't be embarrassed. The second part is the pure, clear and obvious Haram about which the wise people with healthy insight will not argue, and which cause whoever commits them embarrassment, guiltiness and fear of bad destiny. The third part is the Mushtabihat, and they are called so, because they resemble give or take Halal, and they resemble give or take Haram. Thus, they are confusing to many people, and the scholars and truth seekers in particular.
Mushtabihat are in plural, because they are so great in number concerning Halal and Haram matters, and because they vary in their closeness to Halal and Haram matters. It is deemed safer, for the true Muslim in his submissiveness to his Lord, to leave these Mushtabihat in order to have his religious state clear in the sight of Allah and his honor preserved in the sight of people. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
((Leave that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt.))Narrated Atiyah bin Orwah As-Sa'di, he said: I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying:
((A person does not reach the rank of the Allah fearing (muttaqeen) until he abandons what is harmless out of fear that it may be harmful.))
Dear brother in faith, if man uses his reasoning which is installed in him when he was created, and if he reflects on the creation of heavens and earth, his reasoning will lead him to believe in Allah as a Creator, Educator, Controller, Present, Oneness and Perfect.
Man is provided in his Fitrah with moral sense which is able to know the vice and virtue and the right and wrong with no need to a director, a guide or a book of enlightenment. Moreover, man is provided with reasoning to show him the way to Allah, and he is provided with Fitrah which points out his faults. Therefore, as long as man is provided with reasoning, and he is provided in his Fitrah with conscious which are sufficient enough to make him know the greatness of Allah and the status of his ownself, it will be said to him on the Day of Resurrection, when he receives the book of his deeds in the worldly life:
(("Read your book. You yourself are sufficient as a reckoner against you this Day."))
This indicates that you will call your ownself to account, because you own the judge (of your deeds); it is embodied in your reasoning and Fitrah.
Guiding rules for the moral insight:The Prophet, peace be upon him, pointed out the guiding rules in addition to the moral sense installed in the reasoning and the feelings of man. One of these rules is to treat people the way you love to be treated. This concept is mentioned in a long Hadith reported by Imam Muslim by Abdullah Ibn Amr in which the Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
((Whoever would love to be delivered from the Hellfire and entered into Paradise, then let him die with faith in Allah and the Last Day, and let him treat the people the way he would love to be treated.))
Therefore, whenever man is confused about the way he should treat someone, he should put himself in his shoes; if he accepts the way someone treats him- as long as no sin is committed-, he should treat him the same way. Hence, the believer should love for his brother what he loves for himself, and he should hate for his brother what he hates for himself. Bukhari and Muslim reported in Hadith, that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:
((One will not be a true believer unless he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.))
Accordingly, the Muslim is honest with his brother, because he likes sh3er to be honest with him when they talk to him and dislike it when they lie. Also, the believer is trustful towards the money, honor and dignity of his brother, because he likes sh3er to be trustful towards his money, honor and dignity, and hates it when they betray him concerning any of these. Furthermore, the believer rushes to help his brother by offering him money, education, good social position, service, advice, Du'a or Shafa'ah (good recommendation), because he likes sh3er to rush to help him. The believer also is keen on guiding his brother to the true faith and good deeds, because he loves sh3er to do the same to him. All these explain why Muslim is keen on remaining patient, forbearing and tolerant trying his best to cover sh3er' shortcomings and never disclose them, better yet he takes the initiative to advice them secretly whenever it is convenient. He treats people this way, because he likes to be treated the same by them.
Faith is the basic ground of all virtues:What is the purpose of adhering to good conducts by which Fitrah is eased, and which Islam urges to be adopted? What is the purpose of avoiding bad manners which are denied by Fitrah and are prohibited in Islam? The purpose is gaining a pure happy heart, to be promptly rewarded in the worldly life, to be protected from the prompt punishment in the worldly life and to win the everlasting rejoice in the Hereafter.
Desires and passions of the body are the most trivial pleasures, and pains make a value in man's life, but they have partial effects on man; they grant him happiness, but it easily vanishes, just like spray which shortly disappears. Such happiness does not satisfy the ownself, heart or the intellect.
The rank of the worldly pleasures and passions of the onewself is higher than that of those of the body. Besides, those pleasures and passions are deeper and more comprehensive, and they last longer. The rank of the happiness of the Hereafter soul is higher than the one of the happiness of the worldly soul. Let alone, this happiness deeply penetrates into the inner self of man, and it starches till it covers his entire life, activities, movements and stances. It is an everlasting rejoice which never ends; it starts with one's faith and never ends, and it is continuously growing..
The pleasure of the ownself may surpass the pain of the body and minimize its effects till man stops feeling it, while the happiness of the Hereafter may surpass the pain of the worldly ownself till man no longer feels it. Nevertheless, the passions of the ownself may defeat the pleasures of the body making them worthless.
Dear brother, in brief, if man adopts good conducts towards which the Fitrah and heart are relieved, he fulfills the purpose, the safety, the perfection and the continuity of his existence, because the chaos in the heart can only be got rid of by approaching Allah, the estrangement within the heart can only be removed by the intimacy with Allah, the sadness within the heart can only vanish by the delight of knowing Allah, the unrest within the heart can only be settled by resorting to Allah, the burning sensation of remorse within the heart can only be put out by accepting Allah's orders,, decree and predestination, and by bearing patiently all these till meeting with Him and a need within the heart which can only be satisfied through loving Allah, turning to Him in repentance, remembering him constantly and being fully devoted to Him. To sum up, faith is the basic ground of all virtues, the rein of all vices and the essence of conscious. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said:
((The best amongst you are those who have the best manners and character.))
((The most perfect man in his faith among the believers is the one whose behaviour is most excellent; and the best of you are those who are the best to their wives.))
((The most liked servants of Allah to Allah who have the best temper.))
((The best thing the Muslim acquires is good conduct.))
((Nothing will be heavier on the Day of Resurrection in the Scale of the believer than good manners.))
((A believer will attain by his good behavior the rank of one who prays during the night and observes fasting during the day.))
((A believer will attain by his good behavior the best rank in Paradise.))
((The Good manners melt (sweep away) sins as when water melts ice, while the bad manners decay the deed as when the vinegar decomposes the honey.))
The adversity of sinner with his ownself:Dear believer brother in Arab and Islamic world, the following is the story of the noble Companion "Ka'b bin Malik" who failed to take part in Ghazwa of Tabuk without any excuse, so how did he deal with his adversity? What was his stance before the Prophet, peace be upon him? How was his adversity turned into a Divine bonus? How did his hardship end with more closeness to Allah and His Messenger? This story completely accords with the topic of the Khutbah.
Bukhai and Muslim reported the Hadith in which the story of the three companions, who failed to take part in Ghazwa of Tabuk, is mentioned. Their story is mentioned in Quran, and it will be reauthord till the Day of Resurrection. Imam Muslim reported that Ka'b bin Malik said: "I did not remain behind Allah's Apostle in any Ghazwa that he fought except the Ghazwa of Tabuk, and I had never been stronger or wealthier than I was when I remained behind the Prophet in that Ghazwa. Allah's Apostle fought in severe heat, facing, a long journey, desert, and the great number of enemy. Allah's Apostle was accompanied by a large number of Muslims who could not be listed in a book. So Allah's Apostle fought that Ghazwa at the time when the fruits had ripened and the shade, which I liked, looked pleasant. I started to go out in order to get myself ready along with them, but I returned without doing anything. I would say to myself, 'I can do that.' So I kept on delaying it every now and then till the people got ready and Allah's Apostle and the Muslims along with him departed, and I had not prepared anything for my departure, and I said, I will prepare myself (for departure) one or two days after him, and then join them.' In the morning following their departure, I went out to get myself ready but returned having done nothing. Then again in the next morning, I went out to get ready but returned without doing anything.
Such was the case with me till they hurried away and the battle was missed (by me). Even then I intended to depart to take them over. I wish I had done so! But it was not in my luck. So, after the departure of Allah's Apostle, whenever I went out and walked amongst the people (i.e, the remaining persons), it grieved me that I could see none around me, but one accused of hypocrisy or one of those weak men whom Allah had excused. Allah's Apostle did not remember me till he reached Tabuk. So while he was sitting amongst the people in Tabuk, he said, 'What did Ka'b do?' A man from Banu Salama said, 'O Allah's Apostle! He has been stopped by his two Burdas (i.e. garments) and his looking at his own flanks with pride.' Then Mu'adh bin Jabal said, 'What a bad thing you have said! By Allah! O Allah's Apostle! We know nothing about him but good.' Allah's Apostle kept silent."
Ka'b bin Malik added, "When I heard that he (i.e. the Prophet) was on his way back to Medina. I got dipped in my concern, and began to think of false excuses, saying to myself, 'How can I avoid his anger tomorrow?' And I took the advice of wise member of my family in this matter. When it was said that Allah's Apostle, had come near all the evil false excuses abandoned from my mind and I knew well that I could never come out of this problem by forging a false statement. Then I decided firmly to speak the truth. So Allah's Apostle arrived in the morning, and whenever he returned from a journey, he used to visit the Mosque first of all and offer a two-Rak'at prayer therein and then sit for the people. So when he had done all that (this time), those who had failed to join the battle (of Tabuk) came and started offering (false) excuses and taking oaths before him. They were something over eighty men; Allah's Apostle accepted the excuses they had expressed, took their pledge of allegiance asked for Allah's Forgiveness for them, and left the secrets of their hearts for Allah to judge. Then I came to him, and when I greeted him, he smiled a smile of an angry person and then said, 'Come on.' So I came walking till I sat before him. He said to me, 'What stopped you from joining us. Had you not purchased an animal for carrying you?' I answered, "Yes, O Allah's Apostle! But by Allah, if I were sitting before any person from among the people of the world other than you, I would have avoided his anger with an excuse. By Allah, I have been bestowed with the power of speaking fluently and eloquently, but by Allah, I knew well that if today I tell you a lie to seek your favour, Allah would surely make you angry with me in the near future, but if I tell you the truth, though you will get angry because of it, I hope for Allah's Forgiveness. Really, by Allah, there was no excuse for me. By Allah, I had never been stronger or wealthier than I was when I remained behind you.' Then Allah's Apostle said, 'As regards this man, he has surely told the truth. So get up till Allah decides your case.' I got up, and many men of Banu Salama followed me and said to me. 'By Allah, we never witnessed you doing any sin before this. Surely, you failed to offer excuse to Allah's Apostle as the sh3er who did not join him, have offered. The prayer of Allah’s Apostle to Allah to forgive you would have been sufficient for you.' By Allah, they continued blaming me so much that I intended to return (to the Prophet) and accuse myself of having told a lie."
The story of those who lagged behind as it was mentioned in Quran:Dear brother, the rest of this story is amazing, and you can read it in the Sirrah books or ask Ahl Ath-Thikr (those who remember Allah abundantly) in order to know what happened next. Only the last chapter of this story is mentioned in Quran in Surat At-Taubah, Allah says:
((Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirun (Muslim emigrants who left their homes and came to Al-Madinah) and the Ansar (Muslims of Al-Madinah) who followed him (Muhammad) in the time of distress (Tabuk expedition, etc.), after the hearts of a party of them had nearly deviated (from the Right Path), but He accepted their repentance. Certainly, He is unto them full of Kindness, Most Merciful.* And (He did forgive also) the three [who did not join the Tabuk expedition (whom the Prophet)] left (i.e. he did not give his judgment in their case, and their case was suspended for Allah's Decision) till for them the earth, vast as it is, was straitened and their ownselves were straitened to them, and they perceived that there is no fleeing from Allah, and no refuge but with Him. Then, He accepted their repentance, that they might repent (unto Him). Verily, Allah is the One Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.))
Ka'b Ibn Malik was one of the three men mentioned in the Noble Quran.
Dear listeners of men and women, because we are running out of time, I will leave connecting the events of this story with our Khutbah to you, and I would like to remind you of Allah's saying:
((Nay! Man will be a witness against himself [as his body parts (skin, hands, legs, etc.) will speak about his deeds]. Though he may put forth his excuses (to cover his evil deeds).))
Also, I would like to remind you of the Hadith of the Prophet, peace be upon him:
((Truthfulness leads to Al-Birr (righteousness) and Al-Birr leads to Paradise))
What is the connection between this Hadith and the events of the story?