In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Postulates in Islam:
Dear brother, this is 15th lesson on the aqida in Islam. In the previous lesson we discussed the pillars of faith which include the belief that Muhammad is indeed the Messenger of Allah. We also talked about what negates the belief in Muhammad being the Messenger of Allah. Today we are going to deal with the clear proofs of the truthfulness of the Message brought by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
In this religion there are postulates. The first one is that Allah the Almighty is One (Unique) in His Creation, One in His Deeds, and One in His Attributes, all of which is included in the declaration of faith: "No one has the right to be worshipped but Allah", which we have discussed at length. The second one is that Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the Messenger of Allah. We have already discussed its requisites and revocations.
Do you believe that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah without evidence:
Today we are going to discuss its evidence. Allah says (in the Qur'an):
"Indeed We have already sent Our Messengers with clear proofs."
Someone’s claim of being Allah’s Messenger not accompanied by clear proofs would never be accepted. Allah the Almighty would not send a Messenger without sufficient evidence for it because such a message is tied to man’s destiny and his eternal happiness. It is inconceivable for a Messenger, who represents the Creator of the heavens and the earth, the bearer of Divine Care, to be sent without the proofs of his prophethood.
Evidence on the prophethood of Prophet Muhammad:
1. Miraculousness of the Quran
"Indeed We have already sent Our Messengers with clear proofs."
The first of these proofs is the miracle of the Qur'an. The most important thing about this miracle is that Allah has protected it from any change, alteration, plagiarism, or forgery. He says:
"We have, without doubt, sent down the Message and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)."
The miracles of Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be upon him, were one thing and his Message was another thing. His miracles have been preserved as part of the human heritage and never happened again. They were tangible miracles but were not related to his Message. Prophet Musa's (Moses), peace be upon him, miracle was his stick and his Message was the Torah. However, in the case of Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, his miracle and his Message are one: the Holy Qur'an, the Divine Inspiration from Allah. This miracle is everlasting. Why everlasting? Because he is the Last Prophet and his is the Last Message. Thus it had to be everlasting, and it would not have been ongoing had it not been scientific and demonstrative.
"Yet they say: Why are not Signs sent down to him from his Lord? Say: The Signs are indeed with Allah; and I am indeed a clear Warner."
"And is it not enough for them that We have sent down to you the Book which is rehearsed to them? Verily, in it is Mercy and a Reminder to those who believe."
Evidence of belief in Allah and His Messenger:
Three very important matters must be mentioned, dear brothers:
By reflecting on the Universe, you can conclusively come to believe in the Existence, Perfection, and the Oneness of Allah. You can also conclusively come to believe, by using your mind, that the Qur'an is the Word of Allah owing to its inimitability (its miraculous nature). By considering the Qur'an, you can also conclusively come to believe that the man who brought it is indeed the Messenger of Allah. Thus, you can believe in Allah through the Universe, and in the Qur'an through the miracles, and in the Messenger by means of the Qur'an.
Once you believe that the Only God Who is Perfect and Complete does exist, and that His Word (i.e. the Qur'an) is absolute, revealed to the Messenger who was to deliver this miraculous inspiration, who is undoubtedly the Messenger of Allah, then the role of the mind ends and the turn of transmission comes. Let me repeat again, it comes after you have believed in the Only and One and Perfect Creator of this Universe, and after you have believed that the Qur'an is indeed the Word of Allah, and after you have believed that the man who came with this Qur'an is indeed the Messenger of Allah, and that his own words, though not reauthord as Divine, are another kind of inspiration for the purpose of illustrating the Qur'an.
Thus, we have Divine Inspiration from the Creator of the Universe and we have, from our Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, another kind of inspiration that illustrates the reauthord Word of Allah. Now the role of the mind ceases. You believe in everything that the Qur'an tells you and you believe in everything that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, tells you.
Two unchangeable principles in Islam:
Thus, we have a book and a sunnah. Therefore, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:
"You shall never go astray if you hold onto two things after me: The Book of Allah and the sunnah of His Prophet."
The Book is Divine Inspiration and the sunnah is its illustration as expounded by the Prophet who was infallible in his speech, his deeds, his decisions and qualities. We have two elements that are undoubted: The Qur'an and the sunnah, and we have the Universe as the basic postulate which encompasses all Creation.
Because the Qur'an is the Word of Allah and because it is the way for all peoples on the earth, it has to be guarded and preserved. It also follows that for the Qur'an to be preserved, the Prophet’s sunnah has to be preserved. For that reason Allah has sent to these nation scholars of outstanding knowledge who specialized in the Science of Hadith so that they were in a position to classify the Prophet’s Sayings as authentic, weak or false.
Hence, the Qur'an is described as "absolute" in so far as its veracity; some of it is of absolutely clear meaning and some is ambiguous, and the sunnah has degrees of certainty, because some of it is sahih (true), frequent in terms of narration; and some of it is hasan (good); and some of it is dha'eef (weak); and some of it is maudoo' (false).
Evidence from the Quran:
"And is it not enough for them that We have sent down to you the Book which is rehearsed to them?"
This means: Is it not enough evidence for them that you are My Messenger? The Qur'an is the logical evidence that our Prophet Muhammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the Messenger of Allah. The miracle of the Qur'an is the evidence that the Quran is the Word of Allah. The Universe is the logical evidence that Allah is the Creator. Divine Inspiration supports these pieces of evidence. Therefore, you must firmly believe in anything which Allah has instructed you to believe in. He told you that there will be the Last Day (the Day of Resurrection), that in the Hereafter there will be the Basin (of the Prophet), the Path (or Bridge) over the (two) Edges of the Hell and the Balance (on which people's deeds will be weighed). He told you that there will be Paradise and Hell, and that humankind started with the creation of Adam. Thus, the Divine Inspiration informs you about everything that the mind is unable to figure out on its own.
What does "the Balance" mean in the aya:
"And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the Balance (of Justice)."
The role of the mind:
Consider the case of someone who is sick and who, logically, is looking for a very competent and highly qualified physician who fears Allah. Finally, after a long and arduous search, he finds such a physician, who, after having examined him, says that he must not use salt in his food. Here, there is no place for logic. Your brain has led you to believe that the doctor in question is professionally outstanding; therefore the role of your mind stops here. That is the same as when you believe through a cognitive process that Allah is the One Perfect Existing Creator by considering the Universe, and when you believe that the Qur'an is the Word of Allah by considering its miraculous nature, and by believing that the man who brought it is His Messenger by means of the Qur'an and the mind.
The role of reporting:
He has told you that there is a kind of creatures called "jinn", but where are they? This is called "informative evidence"; and it has another name: "aural or transmitted evidence"; and this is irrefutable (compelling) evidence.
There is a proportional relationship between your trust in the speaker and what he tells you. Allah has told you that mankind started with Adam. Darwin, on the other hand, points to the ape as the origin of man. The case, nevertheless, is solved because I have compelling transmitted evidence. Allah has told you that He does not treat anyone with injustice, so He really doesn't do that, He is the Equitable. Thus, if you witness civil wars, or invasions, or famine somewhere in the world; when you see entire nations being tyrannized, you should know that there is certain wisdom in all that of which you are unaware, but you know what Allah has told you, and He only tells the absolute truth: that He treats no-one with injustice.
What distinguishes prophet Muhammad from other prophets:
As reported in Sahihain from Abu Huraira, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:
"There was no prophet among the prophets but was given miracles because of which people had security or had belief, but what I was given was the Divine Inspiration which Allah revealed to me. So I hope that my followers will be more than those of any other prophet on the Day of Resurrection."
In other words, every Prophet was given conclusive proofs and miracles sufficient for the people to believe that he was indeed a Prophet. Thus, Moses was given the miracle of the stick, while Isa was able to cure the leper and the blind, and Ibrahim was saved from the fire, which was made cool for him.
"… but what I was given was the Divine Inspiration which Allah revealed to me. So I hope that my followers will be more than those of any other prophet on the Day of Resurrection."
2. Challenging Arabs with the Quran:
Thus, according to the above hadith, the Prophet says that his miracle was the Divine Inspiration, and this is a unique blessing. In the case of previous Prophets it was narrated that the stick in Moses’ hand became a serpent, but the Divine Inspiration is still with us and we read it every day.
The first thing we notice about the Qur'an is its eloquence and fluency. As we were taught at university, the language of the Quran is the most eloquent in the Arabic language ever, and next to it come the statements of our Prophet Muhammad. This miraculous and most eloquent language is made up of the twenty eight letters of the Arabic alphabet. Can the Arabs, even if they put all their heads together, produce one single ayah similar to those found in the Qur'an? The answer is: NO! If we had enough time at our disposal, I would tell you some of the comical language used by those who claimed prophethood and tried to mimic the Quran, such as that used by Musailema and the like.
3. Every time you read it you find new meanings:
Something else dear brothers:
Sometimes you listen to a khutbah once, twice or three times, you may even come to know it by heart. You may listen to a poem five times then you feel it is such a boring thing; you may listen to a lecture, you listen and listen… but you may listen to a surah from the Qur'an a hundred thousand times in your lifetime and you never feel that this is enough. Just try! Listen to the Qur'an in your car, read the Qur'an at home… Every time you read or listen to it, you perceive something new in it, perhaps a word that you did not pay attention to before; a letter, or even a stop at a particular word that implies a profound meaning. Thus Allah's Word is superior to people’s words in the same degree that Allah is superior to His Creation –it doesn't get dull through repetition even if you read it day and night. The more you read it, the closer to Allah you become. The Qur'an is the most eloquent degree of this Arabic language, and the more you read it, the more new meanings you will find in it.
"And if you are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our Servant then produce a Surah like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (if there are any) besides Allah, if you are truthful.
But if you cannot –and of surety you cannot– then fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones, which is prepared for those who reject Faith. "
4. The Quran informs us of the Unseen:
Its eloquence: the Qur'an tells you about al-ghaib (the Unseen), about which no-one else, apart from Allah, knows. He says:
"The Romans have been defeated,
In a land close by,"
Historians have all agreed that this battle took place in the lowlands of Palestine. Recently, it has been discovered that the lowest spot on the entire earth is the lowland of Palestine. I visited the West Bank before it was occupied. We traveled from Jericho to the Dead Sea. Halfway there was a sign which said "the sea level". We continued our journey down to six hundred meters below the sea level. That was the lowest spot on this earth. The lowest spot beneath the sea is the gulf of Mariana in the Pacific Ocean, which is about twelve thousand meters below the sea level, and the highest point is the Himalaya mountain range –at twelve thousand meters.
It was recently discovered:
There exists They brought a globe that is one meter in diameter; one centimeter represents the highest and the lowest point beneath, i.e. the Himalayas are the highest point and Mariana is the lowest, and they were both represented by one centimeter on the globe that was one meter in diameter. Allah says in the Qur'an:
"The Romans have been defeated,
In a land close by, but they, after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious."
There was a long argument between Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be satisfied with him, and the disbelievers of the Quraish regarding this matter and each party challenged the other. Seven years later the Romans indeed defeated the Persians. This is called the Unknown (or Unseen) of the future. In the Qur'an we find the facts about the Unknown of the past, the Unknown of the present, and the Unknown of the future. The dimension of the Unseen as regards the past and the future is time, but the dimension of the present is space. When you tell me that such and such thing happened to you in Aleppo at 8 p.m., while I was in Damascus, Aleppo, for me, is an invisible space. This is the invisible of the present time, which corresponds to al-ghaib of the past time.
"You were not with them when they cast lots with pens as to which of them should be charged with the care of Maryam; nor were you with them when they disputed (the point)."
The prophet told us:
Thus the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told us about the invisible of the past, of the present and of the future. Therefore, the second proof is that the Qur'an tells us about invisible things. Here is a person who claims the prophethood, then becomes entangled with all around him by saying that the Romans will be victorious while he was persecuted, pursued and wanted dead or alive. He would not have made such claim unless he was convinced that Allah would not disappoint him.
5. Allah's protection to His messenger:
Then, Allah's Protection takes care of the Prophet's life. Allah says:
"Behold! We told you that your Lord encompasses mankind round about."
"O Messenger! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you did not, you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. Allah will protect you from men."
Because the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was so sure that Allah would not fail him, he dismissed his guards and depended upon Allah for protection. This is the exception to the rule that requires one to do what one can do first, then depend on Allah, because the Prophet had Divine Inspiration. Destruction of the entire Universe would have been easier for Allah than not fulfilling His Promise to His Messenger. "Allah will protect you from men" means will prevent them from killing you. We are talking here about a Prophet with a Message. If he had been killed, one might ask why Allah had allowed that to happen. Someone else might ask how we should deal with the ayah which says:
"Muhammad is no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will you then turn back on your heels?"
What is mentioned here is the possibility of his being murdered. Then how can we reconcile this ayah with this one:
"O Messenger! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord. "
This means that you will not be murdered during proclaiming the Message, but when your mission finishes, it is another subject. The second ayah implies: if the proclamation is finished:
"If he died or were slain, will you then turn back on your heels?"
The Prophet was under protection, and when this ayah was revealed ("Allah will protect you from men."), he said to his guards: "O people go! Allah will protect me."
6. There is no prophet or messenger after him:
Another proof of the Prophethood of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is that the Prophets before him came one after another, but after him no Prophet or Messenger will come.
"Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah has full knowledge of all things."
7. Scientific Miraculousness:
Dear brother: The scientific miracles in the Qur'an constitute another proof that it is the Word of Allah, and that Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is His Prophet. This is a very broad subject, and I pray to Allah the Almighty, that the volumes of "The Scientific Miracles of the Qur'an", more than 800 pages, be available to you soon, insha-Allah.
"Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth) and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it noe enough that your Lord does witness all things?
Scientific Miracles in the Qur'an and the sunnah are uncountable. Consider the expression "in the land nearby" which was referred to earlier. Before laser was invented it was not known that the Jordan Valley is the lowest spot on earth. Or else:
"He has set free the two Seas, meeting together.
Between them is a Barrier which none of them can transgress.
Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinn and men) deny?"
The meaning of this ayah became clear only after it was discovered by means of spaceships that indeed between every two adjacent seas there is a barrier.
Only after a galaxy which is at a distance of three thousand light years away from us was discovered, we came to know the meaning of the following ayah:
"When the sky is rent asunder, and it becomes red like ointment,
then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinn and men) deny?"
The above and much more is what confirms the Word of Allah.
"Those whom He wills to leave straying, He makes their breast closed and constricted…"
While flying on a plane, when the amount of oxygen decreases at high altitudes, man feels intense discomfort.
Furthermore, it was discovered that it is not the female egg cell that is responsible for determining the sex of an embryo. Allah says in the Qur'an the following about this issue:
"That He did create the pairs, male and female,
From a sperm drop when lodged (in its place)."
Quite recently, thus, science discovered that what determines the sex of an embryo is the sperm and not the mother’s egg cell.
Allah also says in the Qur'an:
"… each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit…"
It is a well-known fact, now, that everything, whether an atom or a galaxy, revolves around a nucleus.
The earth revolves around the sun at a speed of thirty kilometers per second. This lesson started about thirty minutes ago; therefore, since the beginning of this lesson the earth has traveled 30 by 60 by 30 which is equal to 54 000 kilometers!
Now consider what Allah says in the Qur'an:
"You see the mountains and think them firmly fixed, but they shall pass away as the clouds pas away; (such is) the artistry of Allah, Who disposes of all things in perfect order.
It was discovered that every planet in the Universe revolves around another along a closed orbit.
Allah also says:
"By the Firmament which gives the returning rain!"
It is impossible:
The comment on the Signs of Allah would be a long one, indeed, since they are found in the galaxies, in the sun and in the moon, in the day and the night, in the mountains and the plains, in the deserts, the valleys and the seas and rivers, in the fish, the birds and the other animals, in the creation of man and in the creation of food and drink. Allah says:
"Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth) and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth."
One thousand four hundred years ago the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought to us facts that were unknown a hundred years ago. They have become known only recently. This shows that the miracle of the Quran is the clearest conclusive proof that the Qur'an is the Word of Allah. This is something tremendous! Alhamdulillah, for the last twenty five years I have dedicated the second part of each of my Friday khutbah to the subject of the scientific miracles in the Quran. Insha-Allah, you will see the details of this research in the near future.
8. Israa and Mi'raj:
Al-Isra’ and al-Mi’raj journey is also a clear proof of the prophethood of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He was transported from Mekka to Jerusalem, and from there to Sidrat al-Montaha in the heaven, then back to his home in Mekka as though Allah had cancelled time and space for him. He says:
"Glory to Allah Who did take His servant for a Journey by night…
In other words, this story or this transporting was not subject to the laws of the Universe we are familiar with. Rather, it was an exception as He Who created time and space cancelled them for the Selected One. Allah honored the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with Al-Isra’ and Mi’raj, and told him that he is the best among all Prophets and Messengers. And when he was in Taif, he said:
"O Allah, if you are not angry with me then I do not care (about the troubles I meet with), and You have the right to blame till You are pleased (with me), and Your Protection is what I seek."
In one of the following lessons, insha-Allah we will talk about some of the tangible miracles that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was honored with to show that the miracles he had been granted were not just mental. His biggest miracle, by far, is, of course, the Holy Qur'an, which is a mental, scientific, linguistic and continual miracle till the Day of Resurrection. But like the rest of Allah's Prophets and Messengers, he was given tangible and practical miracles which we will, insha-Allah, talk about in one of our next lessons.
All Praise be to Allah, and may He bless and grant peace to our Prophet Muhammad, the Truthful and Faithful. O Allah! Grant us and do not withhold from us. Honor us and do not humiliate us. Favour us and do not prefer sh3er to us, make us content and be pleased with us; and may peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad and his Family and Companions.