IslamicTopics- MiscellaneousTopics- Lesson (18): Ad-Darooraat Tubeeh Al-Mahzooraat (Necessity knows no laws) (7): AsSafar (Traveling), Sickness, Natural Withholding.



 The definition of As-Safar (traveling):

 Dear brothers, we are still tackling the topic of necessities and how people misused its ruling to such an extent that they used it in a way that contradicts the supposed purpose decreed by Allah and His Prophet, peace be upon him. The ruling "Ad-Darooraat Tubeeh Al-Mahzooraat (Necessity knows no laws)" is a very delicate one,  and it has  so many conditions.

 In previous lectures we talked about Umoom Al-Balwa (a prohibited element affecting most people and difficult to avoid) and about the conditions under which necessities know no laws, and today we will move to other conditions which allow a reduction in obligations (shortening prayers, breaking Sawm…etc.), such as traveling, sickness and natural withholding.


 Traveling in its absolute meaning and Shar'i (Islamic) meaning is to get out of your town to another one, and it  is two kinds: short traveling and long one. The long travel is the distance the traveler travels on a camel or by bare feet for three days or more, and it is estimated by 20 hours of traveling or traveling  a distance of 80 kilometers according to Imam Ibi Hanifah, while Ash-Shafi'i estimated the distance by 96 kilometers. This means that shortening prayers in the travel that is shorter than 80 kilometers according to Abu Hanifah and 96 kilometers according to Ash-Shafi'i is not justified.


Reducing obligations (Shortening prayers, combining them or breaking Sawm) whilst traveling:

   Dear brothers, if the Muslim is traveling there are lots of obligations which are allowed to be reduced or broken, and one of which is to shorten Salah. The Muslim is allowed to shorten every four-unit prayer to two units whenever he  travels. Thus, he offers al-Fajr prayer (the obligatory and the supererogatory),  he offers Zuhr and Asr two-unit prayer for each)and he offers Maghrib and  Ishaa' as two-unit prayer for each. As for Witr, those who consider it an obligation should  offer it in complete, but  those who consider it Sunnah can  skip it whilst traveling.

 Among other obligations which should be done  in traveling is that a woman should  travel with Mahram (a male whom it is forbidden to marry), for she is more prone to troubles when she is alone. There are a lot of stories and uncountable troubles which took place with women when they traveled alone, because a woman is an easy target for sh3er when she is alone, and as scholars said, "Travel is Khulwah (being alone with a member of the opposite sex)". Thus, the most likely opinion among scholars is that a woman should not travel without Mahram, and this ruling  has many details which we will mention later on inshallah.


 One more thing, the person on travel is allowed to break his Swam in Ramadan as a Rukhsah (pl.Rukhas: Shari'ah concession in view of mitigating circumstances) granted by Allah to him, but one might say, "Traveling is not troublesome any more like it used to be in the olden days", and to him we say, "Travel is enough reason to break Sawm". We must differentiate between Illah (reason of a ruling) and Hikmah (wisdom behind a ruling), for Illah is restricted unlike Hikmah, so if we restricted breaking Sawm during travel to difficulties alone, we will wind up in endless mazes, because people differ from one another in their tolerance, physical strength  or capacities. Therefore, traveling is enough reason to reduce the Divine Assignments (acts of worship). Nevertheless, Allah says:


﴾ But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. ﴿

 [Al-Baqarah, 184]

 The most exalted type of traveling is the one in the Cause of Allah:

    I would like to mention another point regarding traveling. Traveling as you all know has different purposes, but the most exalted one at all is to travel for the Sake of Allah in Jihad. People have different understandings for the word "Jihad". In fact, according to the authenticated Sunnah, the best kind of traveling is the one in which you perform  Jihad An-Nafs (striving against ownself (evil ideas, lusts and desires)). This meaning is mentioned in Sahih Sunnah, indicating the fact that whoever  is defeated from within is helpless and a loser, and he can do nothing to the enemy of Islam. Thus, before thinking of Jihad in the sense of fighting the enemy, you should first make sure that you performed Jihad An-Nafs.


((Ibn Al-Qayyim reported: It was said to Hasan Al-Basri, "O Abu Sa'eed, which Jihad is best?" Hasan, may Allah have mercy on his soul, said, "Your Jihad against your desires  for Allah's Sake."))

 [Al Arba'een in Mathhab Al-Mutahaqiqeen of Sufis by Abi Na'eem, narrated by Suwaid Ibn Hujair by Abi Dhar]

((We have come back from the minor Jihad to the major Jihaad." They said, "What is the major Jihaad?" An-Nabi S.A.W (the Prophet, peace be upon him) said, "The Jihaad of the heart".))


 The types of Jihad:

     We should ponder over this Hadith, as it refers to the fact that  man performs Jihad An-Nafs while trying to stay  obedient to Allah. Hence, when man obliges himself to gain lawful money and he kicks hefty suspicious income and is satisfied with the little Halal income in order to please Allah, he performs Jihad An-Nafs, when man's limbs and desires are controlled according to the Method of Allah, he performs Jihad An-Nafs, when man controls his tongue, this is also Jihad An-Nafs and when he perfects his acts of worship and strives to get close to Allah, he performs Jihad An-Nafs.

 You should all know that whenever the word "Jihad" is mentioned, it includes three kinds of Jihad: Jihad An-Nafs, Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi (calling to Allah) and Al-Jihad Al-Qitali (fighting against the enemies of Islam in Allah's Cause).  Some people think only of Al-Jihad Al-Qitali whenever this word is mentioned, and though Al-Jihad Al-Qitali  is an important kind of Jihad, it should be preceded by  the two other essential kinds.


 In order to clarify this issue, consider the example of someone who just had a forbidden affair with a woman, can he offer night prayers after committing such a sin? Is this possible? Absolutely, it is not, for this man has to repent first, then get purified from his sin and after that he  becomes steadfast on the Path of Allah. Accordingly,  you cannot say I will defeat our enemy while you cannot defeat your own desires. Before you think of fighting the enemies, you should ask yourself, "Am I able to stay  obedient to Allah before I fight Islam's enemies?" As I said earlier, the best type of Jihad is to defeat your own desires, because when you do so, you will be ready to think of the other party and ask yourself, "How can I bring them to the Path of Allah? How can I help them to be guided to Allah?"


 Muslims are in dire need of  someone who can deliver the truth with proofs:

   Dear brother, recently something called "The Islam of Guestrooms" has gone viral, and this indicates that talking about Islam becomes something which exalts you in the eyes of people after all man-made doctrines failed and after Islam becomes the only religion that is left with its radiant steadfast truth versus the truth made up by human beings.  However, having Islamic thinking and Islamic sentiments and making Islamic discussions and debates exalt you only in the eyes of people and  make you a good speaker in every assembly, but this kind of Islam is worthless, and it is too far from making someone  committed to Islam. I really liked this term "The Islam of Guestrooms" according to  which someone  will go on and on talking about Islam as if he is the axis of the world and the best Muslim ever, but what is the real Islam? It is the Islam that is based on Jihad An-Nafs.

 In fact, people will never be attracted to Islam unless they see a real committed Muslim in front of them. I always  say that the mission of the leader is very crucial  for other Muslims in their daily life, because Islam without a real example will be  mere thoughts, given there are plenty various sparkling thoughts about Islam out there, but the good example is the only thing which moves us from the abstract world  to the realistic one. It is said, "The good example is a moving thought".

 I keep mention  to you that the Prophet, peace be upon him, is a walking Quran, the universe is a silent Quran and the Quran is a speaking universe. What really attracts us to Islam is to see a Muslim man who applies  Islam to his words, moves, stills, connections, trading, selling, buying and career.  Muslims nowadays are in dire need of having a real example, who will introduce the reality of Islam with proofs to the world, not of  an Islamic thoughts or culture.

 The Prophet, peace be upon him, has two major missions:

  I also used to say to you that the Prophet, peace be upon him, has two crucial missions: the first mission  is to convey the Message of Allah, and the other mission which is the most important is to set a good example to people, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, is the one whom every Muslim looks up to and he is the good example for all of us. Allah says:

﴾ Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad, peace be upon him) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much.﴿


 [Al-Ahzab, 21]

 The Prophet, peace be upon him, suffered poverty and he was patient, suffered richness and he gave sh3er, suffered torture and he submitted to the Almighty Allah and said:

((If there is no anger from you on me I will forever be content.))

 Moreover, he gained  victory and he was humble, he suffered the loss of the son, he suffered slandering towards his chaste wife, he suffered immigration and he suffered having his daughters divorced. Every calamity, which usually befalls mankind, befell the Prophet, peace be upon him, but he took the perfect stance in facing them. Thus, we are in dire need of a good Muslim example.

 The best of Jihad is Jihad An-Nafs:

  There is a delicate point concerning the good example to follow. If the good example belongs to the old eras, it will be fine and the effect will be great, but one might say, "This good example, who is a Companion or a notable scholars, did not live our life or did not have our circumstances and  our pressures. Let alone, he did not face the prevailing temptations or the obstacles we face in our era." I would like to comment on this: Having good examples in our era, who have  the same circumstances, lifestyle, pressures, temptations and obstacles, is much appealing. Therefore, if you want people to embrace Islam in crowds, you should be a good and true Muslim.  The Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, said about him:

((…A man from amongst us, who is well known to us by his noble family, truthfulness, faithfulness and chastity was sent to us by Allah (SWT).))


 [Ibn Khuzaimah by Ja'far Ibn Abi Taleb, may Allah be pleased with him]


 The fundamentals of morals are manifested in being honest and trustful, given the best Jihad is Jihad An-Nafs. Below is  the Hadith which is repeatedly narrated by people:


((It was narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him), said to his Companions when they returned from a military campaign, "We have come back from the minor  Jihaad to the major  Jihaad." They said, "Is there any greater Jihaad than Jihaad against the Kuffaar?" He, peace be upon him, said, "Yes, Jihaad An-Nafs (Jihaad against the evil thoughts, wrongdoings, forbidden lusts and desires)."))


 Jihad An-Nafs is the best sort of Jihad and it is unavoidable, for it is Fard Ayn (a compulsory duty on every single Muslim). Muslims are lagged behind nations because they did not perform Jihad An-Nafs by resisting their desires and lusts, and as a result, Islam stays  in books, lectures and on the shelves of bookcases. Had Islam been applied in life, our life would have been better. This is one point.


 We have mentioned Jihad An-Nafs in addition to Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi.  What we count on is Jihad An-Nafs which is indispensible and which is considered the inevitable stage  for every Muslim to go through.


 Who prevents you from lowering your gaze from looking at forbidden things?
     Who prevents you from controlling your tongue?
     Who prevents you from self reckoning?
     Who prevents you from applying Islam in your house?
     Who prevents you from applying Islam at your work?
     Who prevents you from being honest?
     Who prevents you from being trustworthy?
     Who prevents you from being chaste?

 Forbidden desires and lust do. However, fighting them is available to all of us, and since our Lord is the same Lord of the Companions whom were honored and granted Divine Graces, He can honor us and grant  us Divine Graces too, and He can protect us and grant us victory as He did to them.

 The most important thing is Jihad An-Nafs, which exactly what counts. I used to supplicate in Khutabh as follows, "O Lord let us be victorious over our ownselves, so that we will deserve to be victorious over our enemies". Hence, the first step in Jihad is Jihad An-Nafs because man is made of lusts, tendencies and desires, and he is assigned to a Divine Method. Therefore, when man chooses obeying Allah over fulfilling his own lusts and desires, he will look great in the Sight of Allah. This topic will be further discussed later.

 Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi:

 The second kind of Jihad is Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi, and I will mention the religious texts from the Quran and Sunnah about this sort of Jihad. Allah says:

﴾ So obey not the disbelievers, but strive against them (by preaching) with the utmost endeavor, with it (the Qur'an).﴿


 [Al-Furqan, 52]


 Scholars agreed on that "Al-Ha'" (with it) refers to the Quran. The Creator of the universe called it "Utmost endeavor" (the great Jihad), for even the purpose of Al-Jihad Al-Qitali is to spread Islam and the truth among people, thus if you are allowed to do so, then you do not have to fight and the mission will be  accomplished.

Who prevents you from reciting the Quran, comprehending its Ayat and knowing the permissible and the forbidden matters in it? Who prevents you from knowing the Divine Orders and Prohibitions? Who prevents you from knowing Allah's Limitations in His Book? Who prevents you from applying the Quran? Doing all these things are included in Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi.

 I have just told you that Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi is Fard Ayn. Let me ask you these questions, why do you offer Salah? You offer Salah because Allah imposed Salah upon you. Why do you observe Sawm (fasting)? You observe Sawm because it is an obligation, and the same goes for calling people to Allah with sure knowledge which is not less obligatory than Salah and Sawm. Allah says:

 ﴾ Say (O Muhammad, peace be upon him): "This is my way; I invite unto Allah (i.e. to the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me (also must invite sh3er to Allah i.e to the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) with sure knowledge. And Glorified and Exalted be Allah (above all that they associate as partners with Him). And I am not of the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah; those who worship sh3er along with Allah or set up rivals or partners to Allah)."﴿


 [Yusuf, 108]

 If you do not call people to Allah with sure knowledge, then you stop being a follower to the Prophet, peace be upon him.

 Dear brothers, pay attention to the following crucial Hadith:

(("Whoever dies without having fought or thought of fighting, he dies on one of the branches of hypocrisy."))

 [Muslim by Abi Hurairah]

 If you have never thought  of guiding another person to the Right Path, if you have never thought of lowering your gaze, if you have never thought of controlling your tongue, if you have never thought of watching out your gaining and spending, if you have never thought of applying Islam at home and if you have never thought of calling another human being to Allah, then you will die on one of the branches of hypocrisy.

 The best of Jihad is Jihad An-Nafs  and then Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi:

   Dear brother, you all know the following Hadith:

((The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is the prayer, and struggle (jihad) is its peak.))


 [At-Tabarani by Abi Umamah Al-Bahili]


 This means that the most exalted deed  in Islam is to struggle against your desires and lusts. After accomplishing this,  you can move to Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi  which is Fard Ayn including  the knowledge you know among those you know.
     Dear brother, what I am about to say is based on solid ground and I am not saying them because of my own desires. How many brother attract people to Islam at work, in his neighborhood and among relatives and friends because of his good conducts, straightness, chastity, honesty and wise logic? The good word is the word of love, the word of knowledge, the word of advice and the word of guidance. It is called good word because the soul tends to it.

 All Prophets, peace be upon him, were sent to their people with  the good word which has a great  effect. Scientists, technologists and inventers came up with inventions, electronics and astonishing machines, but man is man, whereas the Prophets, peace be upon them, are those who brought  the good word. Allah says:


﴾ See you not how Allah sets forth a parable? - A goodly word as a goodly tree, whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches (reach) to the sky (i.e. very high).﴿


 [Ibrahim, 24]

 What I meant through discussing the topic of traveling, sickness and natural withholding is to tell you that each one of you should be an Islamic missioner.  I have mentioned in al-Fajr Salah that the biggest Islamic country, whose population is equal to the population of the entire Arab World, had been opened, and it is people were attracted  to Islam because of Muslim merchants and because of their exalted manners  not by the swords and spears.

 Hence, each one of you can be an Ummah (nation). I urge you, including myself, to stop being self-centered and to move to the next level by guiding other people to Allah, for guiding people is the career of the Prophets, peace be upon them, and it is the most exalted one. Allah says:


﴾ And who is better in speech than he who [says: "My Lord is Allah (believes in His Oneness)," and then stands straight (acts upon His Order), and] invites (men) to Allah's (Islamic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds, and says: "I am one of the Muslims."﴿


 [Fussilat, 33]


 Jihad An-Nafs is available to all of us, and we  can do it freely without any obstacles. Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi can be summarized in two words, "learn the Quran and teach it". Let me warn you that whoever does not think of Jihad An-Nafs  and of fulfilling Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi dies on one of the branches of hypocrisy. It is hard for me to believe that someone, whose faith is deeply rooted,  will not be manifested  in calling sh3er to Allah, since  the silent believer, the quitter believer and the desperate believer do not exist. Be sure that Allah guarantees victory to whoever calls people  to Allah, because Islam is His religion. Allah says:


﴾ Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism) in this world's life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth, (i.e. Day of Resurrection),﴿


 [Ghafir, 51]


 These are the words of Allah, and the demise of the universe is much easier to  Allah than breaking His Promise. One cannot become superior according to his religious culture, his sentiments or his Islamic appearance, but rather  he becomes religiously outstanding  when he acts upon  Allah's Orders and Bans. I mentioned this point in another Masjid, and some brother asked me to tackle it in details today. Such a point is embraced by  the topic of Jihad An-Nafs and Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi.  I invoke Allah to give us the chance to fight Zionists, who are challenging this  Ummah, and the time for this Jihad (Al-Jihad Al-Qitali) will come later, but now our mission is to fight our own desires in order to deserve Allah's Victory over our enemies.


 The population of Damascus is 6 million, but  only 500.000people come to the Masjids on Friday. Therefore, you have a crucial mission, which is  calling all the  heedless people, all the ones who are not committed to Salah and all those who are not acquainted with Allah to Allah. Our mission is to extend the circle of knowledge, but doing this requires having profound wisdom, a deep comprehension, a forgiving soul and good conducts with which we can attract people to Allah. I mentioned once that Allah addresses the Prophet, peace be upon him, in the following Ayah:


﴾ And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allah's) Forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs. Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).﴿


 [Aal-'Imran, 159]


 By the Mercy of Allah which settled in your heart, O Muhammad, peace be upon him, you dealt with them gently, and your gentleness is out of mercy not of  weakness. The one who is so far from Islam will be confused and accordingly he sees that being gentle reflects weakness, but this is not true. If you want people to gather around you, you should be merciful to them. This mercy is resulted  from being connected with the Almighty Allah.


 Da'wah (call to Allah) to Allah is one of the cornerstones of salvation:

  Dear brother, we are still talking about this crucial issue "Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi". You should think of guiding someone, so learn something and teach sh3er. When someone attends a religious session without having the intention to convey what he hears to sh3er, he will enjoy the session only, and because he is not interested in conveying it to sh3er, he will not be able to memorize the information he receives. It is like reading a book for entertainment, not for the  exam. In this case one will enjoy the book but will never memorize a word, and what remains in his mind, about it, is a general idea or few words he can use to talk about the book. However, when you read a book in order to have an exam, you will concentrate on every word in it, you will never miss an idea, you will be keen on every comment and detail and you will underline the important points in it, why? Because there is an exam of this subject.

 If you adopt the same method  when you attend a religious session, and when you think of calling sh3er to Allah, you will be more attentive, you will comprehend the ideas and you will follow up, memorize and study important points, and in this case you will get the hang of all the information you receive in that session. There is a big difference between listening to the information and comprehending it. The voice of the speaker reaches the ears of all people, but for some the points discussed may not be focused on,  or they may not be comprehended. I would like to advise every one of you who uses to put on his clothes heading to the Masjid and leaving behind  his house, wife and children in order to attend a religious session, to think of conveying what he hears in that religious session to people, lest he dies on one of the branches of hypocrisy.


 Learn and teach, get information and convey it and learn the Quran and teach it to sh3er, and this is Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi which is Fard Ayn, better yet, it is one of the elements of salvation. The proof is Allah's Words:


﴾ Say (O Muhammad, peace be upon him): "This is my way; I invite unto Allah (i.e. to the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me (also must invite sh3er to Allah i.e to the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) with sure knowledge. And Glorified and Exalted be Allah (above all that they associate as partners with Him). And I am not of the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah; those who worship sh3er along with Allah or set up rivals or partners to Allah)."﴿


 [Yusuf, 108]


 The follower of the Prophet, peace be upon him, calls to Allah with sure knowledge which is supported by evidences and proofs, given one of the elements of salvation is to recommend one another to the truth. As for the scholars who have gone deep in Islamic knowledge and who have comprehended all its details, it is Fard Ayn on them to call to Allah. Allah says:


﴾Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good (Islam), enjoining Al-Ma'ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do) and forbidding Al-Munkar (polytheism and disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden). And it is they who are the successful.﴿


 [Aal-'Imran, 104]

﴾ And who is better in speech than he who [says: "My Lord is Allah (believes in His Oneness)," and then stands straight (acts upon His Order), and] invites (men) to Allah's (Islamic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds, and says: "I am one of the Muslims."﴿


 [Fussilat, 33]


 A brother might not be good at teaching other people, convincing them or spreading the word of truth, so in this case let him be persistent in learning the skills to do so, and let him start with giving CDs or cassettes of these religious sessions to sh3er, and then later on he will learn to discuss the religious issues with people in order to attract them to Islam. Now we can say that we have CD Da'wah, in which one gives people CD of a certain lecture, or scientific inimitability which impressed him, or a Khutbah, and then he can ask people to discuss what the CD contains with him. I meant to concentrate on Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi  in this lecture which is manifested in conveying the truth to people. The one who says, "Praise be to Allah, I am now on the Right Path, and I have nothing to do with sh3er", has learned nothing. I told you a while ago, quitting the society is nothing but an inner defeat. Do you not care about people? Be aware that the one who does not care about Muslims is not one of them.


 The types of traveling:

   The best types of traveling is the Jihad traveling, and seeking knowledge comes next,  then fleeing with one's religion, then traveling for livelihood, then for tourism  according to Allah's Method and finally traveling to commit sins. Believe it or not, nowadays there is a term that is called the sexual tourism, and according to it the person travels in order to have unlawful affairs with women, and this is the reason why most flights  to the eastern Asia are booked on Thursday and Friday in some rich countries. These flights  are for sins.

 The Islamic ruling on traveling is as follows: If someone was certain that he cannot practice his Islam in the country he is about to travel to, his traveling in this case is Haram (unpermitted).


((Whoever mingles with the mushrikeen (those who associate partners with Allah) will be breaching the Covenant.))


 What will happen to the efforts, culture and children of whoever intends to live in western countries for the rest of his life? This is a very painful fact.


 Dear brother, scholars adopted different opinions that may sound strange regarding whoever travels to sin, to rob people, to take sh3er' money, to kill people, to fight Muslims, to rebel against them or to entertain himself unlawfully. They wonder if whoever has such bad intentions can use the Rukhas of shortening Salah and breaking Sawm or eating dead meat and the like whilst traveling. This is ridiculous, for how can  someone who travels to rob people or to kill Muslims be allowed to make use of shortening Salah? What kind of Salah is this?


 Sickness and its Rukhas:

   Let us move to sickness,  a necessary in which a patient may reduce the Divine Obligations.

 Dear brothers, first of all, individuals are not allowed to estimate their own illnesses and capacities, because this is something beyond one's scope, Allah says:


﴾Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. "Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maula (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people."﴿


 [Al-Baqarah, 286]


 The scope mentioned in the previous Ayah is estimated by Allah not you, so do not say, "I cannot do it", while  Allah knows that you can. Allah allows you as an exception to shorten Salah whilst traveling and to do other permitted exceptions, but you cannot add to them anything from your own mind. Among the Rukhas  granted by Allah to the patient Muslims is to perform  Tayammum instead of Wudu with water in case using  water is harmful.


 By the way, difficulties in Islam are not a purpose because our religion is a religion of mercy and the religion which lightens burdens. Thus, difficulties are not an aim in Islam, but when difficulties are imposed on us due to obeying our Lord, then we welcome them, whereas  going into difficulties deliberately should be avoided.



In sickness it is allowed to perform Tayammum instead of Wudu, provided that using water is harmful to one's self, his limbs, his illness (his health condition will be deteriorated) or treating it (his recovery will be slow). Also, it is permitted  to the patient to offer Salah in a sitting position (whether praying alone or in congregation) or even while lying down or by face's expressions alone. These are Rukhas granted to the Muslim patients.
     It is also allowed for the patient to skip Jumu'ah Salah (Friday prayer) and congregation prayers, given he will be rewarded as if he offers them. It is Divine Mercy upon us that the straight believer is rewarded, when he is on travel, the same way he is  rewarded when he is settled. The same goes for the patient, for when he uses the Rukhsah of reducing obligations whilst he is sick, he gets the same reward he used to get when he has good health. There is an opinion according to which the patient can combine prayers (performing Zuhr Salah with Asr Salah and performing Maghrib Salah with Ishaa' Salah whether Taqdeeman in the time of Zuhur and Maghrib or Ta'kheeran in the time of Asr and Ishaa' according the Shafi'i School of Thought), break Sawm in Ramadan, appoint someone to offer Hajj on his behalf, appoint someone to do Rami al-Jimar (Pelting Shaytaan in Mina) in Hajj due to overcrowding, do impermissible matters during Ihram (a special state of purity performed before offering Hajj) like wearing sewed clothes, cure his illness by using Najasat (impurities) like having sips of wine because of lump in his throat which might cause his death, eat swine meat if he is about to die out of hunger and expose his Awrah (Awrah means what you can and cannot show to Mahrams and none Mahrams, men and women) to the doctor who will examine and treat him or her.


Important rulings on sickness:

   Dear brothers, there are important rulings on the state of illness. One  of them is: If the patient is not in debt, he should be partially forbidden from giving donations, Waqf (Waqf refers to a religious endowment i.e. a voluntary and irrevocable dedication of one's wealth or a portion of it - in cash or kind [such as a house or a garden]), leaving any money by terms of a will or offering any Sadaqah unless the money he is about to spend in these fields is about one third of his wealth but not more. Thus,  it is forbidden for the person in sickness to donate his entire money and leave his heirs with nothing.


((The Prophet, peace be upon him, said to Sa'd when the latter said: "Should I not will away one-third (of my property)?" Thereupon he (the Noble Prophet, peace be upon him) said: "(Yes), one-third, and one-third is quite substantial. And what you spend as charity from your property is Sadaqah and flour spending on your family is also Sadaqah, and what your wife eats from your property is also Sadaqah, and that you leave your heirs well off (or he said: prosperous) is better than to leave them (poor and) begging from people." He (the Noble Prophet, peace be upon him) pointed this with his hands.))


 One more thing, the patient's donations to one of his heirs cannot be executed unless the rest of heirs approve it. For instance, if a father who is on his deathbed wants to give a house to one of his sons as a donation, the rest of his sons should approve that donation, and if the father has a good heath, there is another ruling on this situation. Therefore, regarding illness, we have a complete seizure and partial one of the ill person's money.


 Now in case the patient is in debt, and this debt consumes all his wealth, his money should be seized, and he is not allowed to spend anything from it, because paying debts comes first, but if the debt is less than his entire wealth, his money  be partially seized. The purpose of the seizure in illnesses is to preserve people's rights whether the heirs' or the lenders'.


 I would like to repeat this point again: The patient is allowed to shorten his prayers, to combine them, to offer Salah in a sitting position, to skip Friday prayer and congregation ones, to perform  Tayammum instead of Wudu with water, to appoint someone to offer Rami al-Jimar on his behalf, to treat his illness with impurities and to expose his Awrah to the doctor who is treating him/her. All the points we have discussed so far are embraced by the ruling Ad-Darooraat Tubeeh Al-Mahzooraat.


 Excusing the one with natural withholding:

   The natural withholding includes the little child and the woman, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, asks us to look after the woman and the orphan and he described them both as weak. Among the reduced assignment of the little boy and the insane is that they do not have to offer the acts of worship like Salah, Sawm and the rest acts of worship. However, scholars suggested a very nice thing in Fiqh, which  is  the training assignments (for little kids who have natural withholdings). According to these training assignments, we train the little children to get used to Sawam and Salah, and though the children are not Divinely assigned to offer these acts of worship, it is still not proper to wait for them to reach puberty,  and then you ask them to offer Salah and Sawm. Hence, children should be trained to offer the acts of worship and to obey Allah, Glorified and Sublime be He.

 Concerning the Zakat of the little boy,  scholars said, "Zakat of the money of the little boy should be paid", whereas other scholars said, "It should not be paid", while a third party had an opinion  in between those two ones. They said, "Zakat of the invested money of the little boy should be paid, but if it is not invested, then it  should not be paid." Nevertheless, if the little boy or the insane person caused damage to the properties of sh3er, the compensation should be paid from their money.


 The woman has natural withholdings, one of which is related to her mission in life. Scholars said, "The woman is not obliged to attend Friday prayer or congregation prayers". However, some Muslims misunderstood this ruling thinking mistakenly that it is impermissible for the woman to attend Friday prayer. There is a big difference between being exempted from attending Friday prayer and being not permitted to do so. Accordingly, if a woman comes from the suburb with her husband to a Masjid in Damascus, where there is a special floor for women in the Masjid to be able to  stay there and listen to the Friday Khutbah, then it is fine to do so though she is not obliged to.


 Also in some cases when the husband is dead and the children are married, the woman can attend Friday prayer, and for her it replaces  Zuhr prayer, and this is the Islamic ruling on this issue. If the woman is interested in seeking knowledge, and she has no one to look after, and she lives next to the Masjid, the women's floor in the Masjid is open to her and to any other woman who wants to attend Friday prayer.


 The woman also is excused from the obligatory Jihad, from paying Al-Jizyah (tax), and she is allowed to wear silk, brocade and gold jewelry. Furthermore, she is excused from praying the Salah she misses when she is in her Haid (the blood that the female naturally releases every month) or Nafas (the blood which is discharged from a woman's womb dur¬ing or after the childbirth), so that she will not be burdened. Let me repeat it again, the woman should not pray while she is in Haid or Nafas, nor should she pray the prayers she misses later, but as for Sawm, she should offer the days she misses in Ramadan after she offers Gusl (washing the whole body with clean water).


 Calling to the way of Allah with wisdom and fair preaching is Fard Ayn:

   Dear brothers, Allah reduces the acts of worship for those who are ill, on travel or have natural withholdings, but the main topic I would like to elaborate on  is Jihad An-Nafs and Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi which is Fard Ayn on every Muslim. Each Muslim  should fight his own lusts and desires, and he should call those he knows to Allah with wisdom and fair preaching by conveying the things he knows to people who are close to him (such as relatives and friends).

((The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Convey (my teachings) to the people even if it were a single sentence, and tell sh3er the stories of Bani Israel (which have been taught to you), for it is not sinful to do so. And whoever tells a lie on me intentionally, will surely take his place in the (Hell) Fire."))


 [Al-Bukhari by Ibn Amr]


 I once suggested a plan which goes as follows: as a believer you have your meetings every week, for you may visit your sister, you may invite people over dinner, you may attend a wedding or you may go for  a picnic, and these social meetings are unavoidable in the believer's life, so what do you talk about in these meetings? My suggestion is to talk about Khutbah or a religious topic during these meetings. Accordingly, when you attend a religious session about the interpretation of Hadith, or when you attend a Khutbah, you are supposed to pay attention to the points discussed and  listen to them carefully in order to  comprehend them. Unless you intend to convey the ideas raised and discussed in the session, you will not be able to focus on them, and all you can do is listening. Hence, you are expected to pay attention to whatever you are listening to and try to memorize it or to write down the main points, so that you can make these points the subjects you would like to talk about during your social meetings, and in this case you will fulfill Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi.  Allah says:


﴾Verily, Ibrahim (Abraham) was an Ummah (a leader having all the good righteous qualities), or a nation, obedient to Allah, Hanifa (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and those who joined partners with Allah).﴿


 [An-Nahl, 120]


 I used to compare between a 150 million diamond, which is showcased in Istanbul, and a piece of coal of the same size which costs only one penny, and I would like to make a similar comparison between  people. There are people who are harmful, and there are sh3er who are like the coal, and they are neither harmful nor useful, while there are people who are so precious like the diamond. Thus, the more you are involved in Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi, the more endeared you will be to sh3er and the more exalted you will be in the Sight of Allah. Ibrahim, peace be upon him, was Ummah (an entire nation). One good believer might attract 40 people around him, and they will all make use of his knowledge, good conducts and Da'wah. Life is short, the mission is immense, and the Hereafter is inevitable. Thus, what will help you on that difficult Day (the Day of Resurrection), is calling people to the Almighty Allah.


 Once I was in the funeral of someone with whom I sit many times for hours. He was an industrial man, his lifestyle was very exquisite, his house was luxurious and he used to own many cars, used to travel a lot and his activities were very classy, so when he died the scholar who was beatifying him said, "Ask Allah to have mercy on the soul of your brother, for he was Mu'azin (The person who call for prayer in Masjid). That  short sentence attracted my attention. If you were in the shoes of that scholar, what would you said about that person? Would you talk about his house, his cars, his tastes or his travels? In death you cannot talk about any of these things, and only good deeds are mentioned.


 The self-centered person is unnoticeable without any good deeds, whereas the one who left his own interests and served people will become a different person. If you seek happiness, bring happiness to sh3er. When someone moves from fulfilling  his own interests to serving sh3er, the Almighty Allah will look after all his needs, but if he is self-centered, troubles will come to him from far and wide. You either  serve the creations or  are busy with solving your own problems.


 In fact, the main point  of this lecture is to urge you to move from being interested in  your own concerns, family, children, income, food, drink and shelter to care for  other Muslims, for he, who does not care about Muslims, is not one of them.


 Calling to Allah should be one of your daily activities.  Is it rational that someone has been attending religious sessions for 10 years, yet he cannot convey any of that to sh3er for even one hour? Has  he not comprehended any of the Ayat? Has he not understood any Hadith? Has he not  liked any story? Has he not become aware of some Islamic rulings?


 I ask Allah to guide all of us towards Jihad An-Nafs and Al-Jihad Ad-Da'awi. No one prevents you from lowering your gaze, controlling your tongue, earning Halal (lawful) income, applying Islam at home or attending a religious session. Therefore, learn and teach sh3er.


((The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The best among you (Muslims) are those who learn the Qur'an and teach it."))


 [Al-Bukhari by Uthman Ibn Affan]


 The best among you at all (are those who learn the Quran and teach it.